New data and evolving clinical strategies are suggesting that inhibition of sodium–glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 (a protein that facilitates glucose reabsorption in the kidney) is a novel therapeutic approach to control diabetes, which is considered as a prominent change with respect to diabetes treatment options (Chao and Henry, 2010). And SGLT2 inhibitors lower the blood glucose levels by blocking the reabsorption of glucose in the kidney, thus increasing glucose excretion.
Several structures with C-glycosidic linkages are found to be SGTL2 inhibitors. These SGLT2 inhibitors do not target major physiological defects in type 2 diabetics and are thus potentially promising new options (Jabbour and Goldstein, 2008).
High blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients lead to saturation of SGLT receptors, which in turn results in increased excretion of glucose in the urine. It has been observed that such patients also express higher number of SGLT2 receptors. Thus, renal glucose uptake is greatly elevated in such patients leading to glucotoxicity. Blockade of SGLT2 increases urinary glucose excretion and thus reduces plasma glucose levels―a novel therapeutic approach to control high blood glucose levels (Chao and Henry, 2010).
C-glycosides from P. marsupium have been found to be safe and effective SGLT2 inhibitors as evaluated through clinical studies for their blood sugar management.
Apart from maintaining healthy blood glucose levels, Vijaysar is also believed to be having some unique features like beta cell protective and regenerative properties (Hariharan et al., 2005).